Audra McDonald shot to stardom based on her Broadway debut in the revival of CAROUSEL at Lincoln Center.
Kristin Chenoweth's career got a huge boost when she played Sally in YOU'RE A GOOD MAN, CHARLIE BROWN. The first Broadway production, but it was a revival of a popular Off-Broadway musical.
Alan Cumming made his name with the revival of CABARET.
Other examples might be Debbie Allen (WEST SIDE STORY) and Craig Bierko (THE MUSIC MAN).
And though she had several earlier credits and had already done THE LIGHT IN THE PIAZZA, I would say that Kelli O'Hara's stature as a Broadway star is based largely on her performances in several musical revivals.